Flora and Fauna

Among the marvellous nature of Holguin, we may find one of the richest floras in endemic species located in Cuba, due to the presence of great extensions of lands covered with vegetable formations being developed upon soils originated from serpentine rocks (ultrabasic). These formations include mangroves in the coastal zones and even tropical forests, which are known as dry schlerophyllous low forest (cuabal) and wet schlerophyllous low forest (charrascal). Among the most outstanding flora species one may cite, The Rosa de la Sabana, the dwarf cactus, the Roble de Sabana, the Jacaranda  arborea, the Yuraguana, etc.

Holguin’s flower

Botanical elements giving a specific characteristic to the territory Suphorbia podocarpifolia: this plant was proposed and approved at the end of the 80 decade as Holguin province’s flower

Holguin is located in one of the richest territories in biological diversity of the Cuban archipelago, showing a variety of ecosystems from the coasts to the mountains where outstanding species inhabit for the world and regional biological diversity, it is precisely at the north mountains where the majority of diversity is found and endemism in Cuba.

4 000 species of superior plants appear, from which 2 000 are endemic from the nearly 3 000 with which Cuba’s flora counts with. The botanical families with greater quantities of endemism in Holguin province are: Rubiaceae, Asteaceae and  Bignoniacae.

An important element to highlight is the presence of some genre, especially important in the evolution scale of superior plants such as the presence of genres:  Magnolia and Talauma at  Nipe Baracoa mountain range, the presence of monotypic genres such as Harnakia Dasytropis. Neobesseya cubensis: it is  a cactus strictly endemic to Holguin. Juniperus lucayana: known as sabina and mentioned by Martí in his campaign dairy and Hidelgardia cubensis: known as Guana, Cuban endemic specie whose farming area previously spread towards the province of Camaguey, but it has been shrinking and best populations have been located in the limy soils of Holguin’s shores, mainly Guardalavaca and Bay of Vita.

Within the most outstanding species we find polimites, characterized by their colour and beautifulness. Besides the national bird of Cuba inhabits here, it is the The Cuban Trogon (Priotelus temnurus). Interesting species are shown here because of their sizes, albinism and hybridism, among the ones of bigger size we find the giant variety of a shell Liguu fasciatus, the  The Cuban Solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) the biggest living insectivorous at present and the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephillus principalis) last seen in  1986.

Among the smallest ones of the world, there are the tiny scorpion (Microtityu fundorai) with a size of 13 mm length, the Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) with 63 mm length and the frog (Eleutherodactylus iberia) with 10 mm length.

Among the most remarkable fauna species, we find the polimites characterized by their beauty and colour, furthermore our national bird the Cuban Trogon (Priotelus temnurus), lives here. Interesting species are shown here because of their size, albinism and hybridism, among the ones with greater size, we have the giant shell Liguu fasciatus.

The Cuban Solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) the biggest living insectivorous nowadays and the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephillus principalis) last seen in 1986. Among the smallest ones of the world we have the tiny scorpion (Microtityu fundorai) with a size of 13 mm length, the Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) with 63 mm length and the frog (Eleutherodactylus iberia) with 10 mm length.

The natural heritage is so rich, specific and diverse that makes us all at once unique and diverse, integrated to the nation’s heritage which contributes to assure Cuba is the most beautiful land ever seen.

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